MIGRATION MOVEMENTS: Complexity of a global problem

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MIGRATION MOVEMENTS: Complexity of a global problem

by: His Illustrious Lordship Commander Mons. Pedro Candia, ex administrator of the Military Ordinariate of Argentina

“Caritas Christi urget nos” Saint Paul – Second Letter to the Corinthians 2 Cor 5:14


Migratory movements constitute a global problem that is difficult to solve. There are different causes that have led to these migratory movements, seeking refuge and internal displacement; among them are wars, terrorism, hunger-famines, political persecution, presence of guerrilla movements, and other diverse situations. They all have a common denominator: the massive displacement of people in search of safety, although, on the contrary, many end up being victims of situations of greater insecurity.

In this order, the migratory crises unleashed throughout the world constitute a phenomenon that alter the political map and strain interstate ties. In this sense, we can distinguish: 271.6 million international migrants (with a growing trend since 1990 and intensified between 2002-2008), this represents 3.5% of the total population; 47.9% have been women; 27.9% people between 0 and 14 years old and 55.3% live in urban areas (Center for Data Analysis on Migration, 2020).

At the regional level: the United States has 2,342 children separated from their parents on the border with Mexico; Colombia 7.7 million internally displaced persons despite the government’s agreement with the guerrilla movements and Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) and in Venezuela: 1.5 million people left the country. While 66% of the displaced in El Salvador are children and 57% (some 247,000 people) correspond to internally displaced persons in Honduras. For its part, the European Union has received 47,637 migrants (2020) with a decrease compared to previous years due to the impositions established for their control. North Africa and the Middle East have 4.5 million displaced persons (Norwegian Refugee Council); in sub-Saharan Africa: 5.5 million internally displaced persons (mostly from the Republic of the Congo); Syria, 12.6 million displaced after seven years of war (UNHCR, 2018); Myanmar: 720,000 Rohingya (Muslim minority) fled to Bangladesh. In turn, according to the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR, 2018), there are 41.3 million internally displaced persons due to armed conflicts.

According to reports from the United Nations Organization (2018), countries should implement policies for their insertion in the different labor markets, on the one hand, to respond to human security needs, and second, introduce management tools aimed at inclusion as a reduction in economic tensions, generated in the short term by its presence, both nationally and internationally.

Faced with this undeniable reality, it is that from the Vatican’s Dicastery for Comprehensive Human Development Service (2020), the analysis of this reality called Peripheries of Existence is proposed, where it is declared that those people who are in conditions of marginality, abandonment, pain, loss of meaning and hope: that is, the poor, sick, excluded, migrants, itinerant, circus, stateless, prisoners; All of these must be recipients of care, human social and spiritual protection (Dicastery, 2020).

Given this, they are not only international organizations but from within the Christian Catholic Church itself, an integral vision and global treatment of the problem of migrants and displaced persons or whatever their denomination or condition is proposed, that is, “seeks to propose to all men a humanism at the height of God’s love plan, a comprehensive and supportive humanism that can generate a new social, economic and political order founded on the dignity and freedom of every person (Dicastery for the Service of Human Development Integral, 2020), in pursuit of Christian Theology and the Social Doctrine of the Church.

In accordance with the above, this article seeks an approach to the analysis of advances related to the treatment of the condition of migrants at a global level, in parallel, it proposes an interpretative look at the Vatican document exposed in the Dicastery as an instrument of solidarity treatment of the human condition, which seems to be diluted before the serious situation suffered by the different migrants of the world. Then the general conditions of the international situation of migrants were developed; physiognomy of a complex situation, limitations on the recognition of the contributions of migrants continued; the problem of inclusion and social cohesion; enforced disappearances-slavery and human trafficking and finally, the action of the Dicastery (2020) and the Encyclicals Laudato Si (Vatican, 2015) and Fratelli Tutti (Vatican, 2020b); finally, it has culminated with the respective conclusions.


2.a. General considerations of the international situation of the migrant

Since ancient times the human being has been in constant transit. Some people move in search of work or new economic opportunities, to reunite with their families or to study. Others, to escape conflict, persecution, terrorism or human rights violations and abuses or in search of new job opportunities. Currently, the number of people living in a country other than the one in which they were born is higher than in previous years: 272 million in 2019, 51 million more than in 2010. International migrants comprise 3.5% of the world’s population, this continues to rise compared to 2.8% in 2000 and 2.3% in 1980 (IOM-UN, 2019).

According to the International Organization for Migration (IOM-UN, 2019), a migrant is any person who moves, or has moved, across an international border or within a country, outside their usual place of residence regardless of their legal status, the voluntary or involuntary nature of the displacement, the causes of the displacement, or the duration of their stay.

Many international organizations focus on these human movements from the International Organization for Migration (IOM); Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR); IOM Global Center for Migration Data Analysis; Norwegian Refugee Council – Internal Displacement Monitoring Center; World Data Portal on Migration (IOM).

According to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (UN, 2016) a basic principle is recognized “leaving no one behind”, that is, migrants are included and considered as a problem to be solved. In this regard, target 10.7 stipulates that it must: facilitate orderly, safe, regular and responsible migration and mobility of people, including through the application of planned and well-managed migration policies. Other objectives also address different aspects of migration such as human trafficking, remittances and international student mobility. It should be added that migration is indirectly relevant to many other Development Goals (UN, 2016).

These principles are directly linked to the International Organization for Migration (IOM) created in 1951 as a grassroots intergovernmental organization in the field of migration that collaborates with other organizations in search of a resolution of migration problems; promoting international cooperation; it helps to find practical solutions to migration problems, and offering humanitarian assistance to those in need, whether they are refugees, displaced or uprooted people. In 2016, IOM reached an agreement (A / 70/976) with the United Nations to become a specialized agency of the Organization.

In this regard, it is necessary to highlight that, in 2019, the number of international migrants (that is, people who reside in a country other than the country of birth) reached 272 million worldwide (48% of women) compared to 258 million from 2017; of these, 164 million are migrant workers. Likewise, it is estimated that there are 38 million migrant children and three out of every four are of working age (20 and 64 years). Asia hosts around 31% of the international migrant population, while the data for the rest of the continents is distributed as follows: Europe 30%; the Americas 26%; Africa 10%; and Oceania, 3% (according to data collected from the World Migration Data Portal, 2020) Thus, as of March 2020, there were 14,854 migrants and refugees who had entered Europe by sea (that is, 50% more than in the year 2019), most of it can be attributed along the eastern Mediterranean route that connects the Middle East, Africa with Greece. Despite the ban, they also arrived in Italy, Malta, Greece (with an increasing rate) and Spain (World Data Portal on Migration, 2020).

The large movements of refugees and migrants affect all Member States of the United Nations (UN), so it is necessary to strengthen cooperation between them and establish a division of responsibilities, as mentioned above. The countries with the highest number of asylum applications are members of the European Union, with Germany, Sweden, Italy and France standing out. Thus, on September 16, 2016 the UN General Assembly hosted its Summit on Refugees and Migrants in order to unite countries around a more humanitarian and coordinated approach. In response to this, the Secretary General prepared a report entitled “In conditions of safety and dignity: response to large movements of refugees and migrants.” This text has recommendations regarding migration.

During the aforementioned Summit, Member States adopted a set of commitments, known in the New York Declaration for Refugees and Migrants, which expresses the political will of world leaders to save lives, protect rights and share responsibility on a global scale. Furthermore, it recognizes the positive contribution that migrants make to sustainable development and is committed to protecting the security, dignity and human rights and fundamental freedoms of all migrants, regardless of their immigration status.

In the aforementioned New York Declaration, the member states agreed to cooperate in the elaboration of a Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration, which was approved at the intergovernmental conference on international migration in December 2018 in Morocco. This Global Compact covers various topics, such as strengthening the labor rights of migrant workers; improving data on migration to develop evidence-based policy; or save lives and establish international efforts for the cases of disappeared migrants, among many other issues, that is, the migrant’s problem is beginning to be perceived from a comprehensive perspective.

It is highlighted that, according to the IOM (2020a), the situation of migrants is characterized by the lack of protection across the Mediterranean Sea and they are led by smugglers. In this regard, the data from the Migrant Project on the number of disappeared with estimates from the IOM (2020b), has made it possible to interpret the increasing rate as constant of this existing problem, the statistics reflect the following numbers of disappearances (estimates): in January ( 2014) there were 27, 595 (2015) and 503 (2019); in the month of April: 98 (2014), 1583 (2015) and 745 (2016); in the month of May: 459 (2014), 1379 (2016), 820 (2017). It should be remembered that these are minimum estimates of the number registered by the number of monthly deaths produced in the Mediterranean Sea and the Middle East, for different causes, from the presumed drowning, asphyxia, lack of shelter, violence, hypothermia, lack of access to food and / or water (IOM, 2020b).

2.b. Physiognomy of a complex situation

Due to the aforementioned, the number of migrants has led to a problem with international recognition and also to an awareness of the polarization that exists in public discourses that are on the rise, many times recognized by a xenophobic and anti-humanitarian toxicity, since they can be found opposing and even radicalized positions, on the one hand defending and concerned about the migrant situation, and on the other extreme closed positions regarding migration and its possible link with transnational organized crime, fundamentalist groups, and even terrorist organizations.

According to the IOM-UN Migrations (2020), migrants contribute favorably to their host places in various ways, such as: new personal relationships with social-group and institutional interactions; socio-cultural links; political and economic civic. In this way, the following are recognized: dissemination of food and sports traditions, including artistic production; participation of migrants in the governance of different levels of government, carrying out voluntary work; support for other migrants.

As regards the purely economic issue, international remittances sent by migrants are highly important contributions since the transactions help families meet basic household needs and reduce poverty gaps; they act as a driving force for business initiatives and innovation. According to studies mentioned in IOM-UN (2020), migrants have contributed 30% of global innovation in the United States since 1976.

2.c. Limitations on the recognition of the contributions of migrants

They are not only identified in their places of destination but in their countries of origin. They are associated with the complexity of the application of laws for the regulation of the companies that may be generated and the consequent application of labor, criminal and property law.

Since the end of the Cold War and mainly, since the attacks of September 11, 2001, the massive attacks on Afghanistan and the circumscribed area of the Middle East, migration has been used as a political reference point and as a way to attract the electorate. Moreover, the different political systems have used it either to generate a larger number of voters or to exclude others. Issue that has negatively contributed to polarize public opinion and crack social harmony by placing special emphasis on the “extra-community” of the phenomenon.

In this regard, it is highlighted that there is a political conflict regarding this issue, which follows a political logic and is attributable to the parties and the rivalry between them, rather than to objective pressure (OIM-UN, 2020, p.193). For example, the role of far-right parties in the politicization of migration and political awareness against the issue. Political activity itself, added to some acts of violence, has become an impediment to the adoption of a balanced policy on migration. Extremely regrettable situations such as the fires of the Notre Dame de Paris cathedral in 2019 and the Gothic cathedral of Nantes in 2020, served so that French and European public opinion in general attributed what happened to groups of radicalized Muslim immigrants.

2.d. Inclusion and Social Cohesion

When referring to the problem of migration, other derived issues are also recognized, for example, their inclusion and the generation of social cohesion.

It is worth noting that there is no precise definition of both concepts with universal recognition. Social cohesion is linked to solidarity, union, tolerance and harmonious coexistence and is applied in a general way, not specifically to migrants; Also, income inequality and the deprivations that they may suffer undermine cohesion.

In parallel, inclusion is closely linked to cohesion, since, if a city excludes a part of itself, it fails to create an atmosphere of cohesion. Despite the lack of a universal definition of inclusion, it consists of cohesion and incorporation, in this case of migrants in the different spheres of society.

Therefore, inclusion transcends the global North-South or center-periphery division, since it internally concerns all countries regardless of their differences. The models of inclusion have been assimilation, cultural diversity and integration, but with different degrees of adaptation.

In this regard, certain examples can be added: a model of selective assimilation with high adaptation of migrants, but with a low degree of adjustment of society was the White Australia Policy between 1901-1966 (IOM-UN, 2020). The model of inclusion of migrants according to professional capacities with a multicultural perspective with a high degree of adjustment is the one applied by Canada since 1971 (IOM-UN, 2020).

For its part, the integration inclusion model with an intermediate degree of adaptation of migrants and adjustment can be represented with the European Union, with the 2016 Action Plan (IOM-UN, 2020). Being non-selective and massive, it has had some unwanted effects in some countries such as Belgium, the Netherlands and France, where a phenomenon of “ghettoization” quickly occurred, of non-identification with the values and laws of the host state, and lack of solidarity with host communities.

2.e. Enforced disappearance, slavery and human trafficking

There are new forms of generation of slavery, between men, women, boys and girls. Forced migrations have been sources of degradation of human beings worldwide.

A “use” of the person has been generated as an “object”; Their condition as a human being has been degraded, either due to their age, gender, physical characteristics, ethnic origin and / or schooling. The human being has been transformed into a business, a commodity and is treated as such (Scherezada López Marroquin, 2019). This author eloquently explains how the human being has been lowered to a condition of thing, which is directly linked to the globalization process; since organized crime transcended borders and permeated all kinds of forms of government, national and international.

In this regard, Bales (2000) adds, it is not possible to conceive of human slavery without the link between government authorities, security forces and organized crime, as well as the participation of large multinational companies. In such a way that we can even recognize states in parallel to the existence of organized crime (Flores, 2009).

The Document “Protocol to prevent, repress and punish trafficking in persons, especially women and children” that arises from the Palermo-Italy Protocol (2000) and complements the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, had the participation of 148 countries.

In article N ° 3, he defined trafficking as “the recruitment, transport, transfer, reception or reception of people, resorting to the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, kidnapping, fraud, to deception, abuse of power or a situation of vulnerability or the granting or receipt of payments or benefits to obtain the consent of a person who has authority over another, for the purpose of exploitation”.

The aforementioned exploitation will include various forms of labor and / or sexuality, forced labor, servitude practices and even the extraction of organs (López Marroquín, 2019).

For slavery, servitude or any of its forms to take place, it is necessary to recruit, that is, the “hitch”, the people (López Marroquín, 2019) that occurs with individuals for this purpose, whether it is the internet with job offers, or fictional partners, specific marriage or career offers.

One of the structural causes of these human misfortunes is poverty; In other words, human beings lacking all kinds of hope and possibilities have fallen prey to unscrupulous crime and its ruse that, with alleged economic and job offers, have deceived people in search of better living conditions.

It is not only migrants who fall into this type of situation. In this regard, López Marroquín (2019) points out that also adult men, such as those from Tapachula [Mexico], who openly seek these girls between 11 and 15 years old in the squares to “employ” them and abuse their status as illegal or extreme poverty. In many of these cases, the men from these families sexually abuse the girls, keep them working without pay, and then fire them to go find other girls. Even “in Tapachula there is a” red “area where these foreign girls are located, who are not listed as a” valuable “commodity, since there is deep racism against Central American women and for that reason, they are very mistreated by the clients” (López Marroquín, 2019).

2.f. Action of the Dicastery for the Service of Integral Human Development and Papal Encyclicals

From the Dicastery (2020), a progressive task in terms of contribution and cooperation to the migrant as well as to the displaced can be highlighted, in recognition of the term “peripheries of existence”, that is, those displaced, migrants, stateless who suffer from the consequences of their mobility and distance from the area in which they have lived, whatever the cause that motivated their displacement. In this way, a task can be distinguished from the Vatican in this matter, affirming the need for its inclusion and not its exclusion (Dicastery, 2020):

  1. Charity on the border in mission in the Cúcuta area;
  2. Document signed in January 2020, which highlights The European Green Deal organized by the European Parliament, recognizing the need to find a comprehensive ecological approach to safeguard the “common home”, that is, the planet.
  3. Center for the Roma (built by the Order of Malta) operating in Croatia (the largest ethnic minority in Europe) with 35 thousand people.
  4. Donation for the promotion of Integral Human Development to the Lebanese Church in order to build and help refugees and displaced persons after the explosion of August 4, 2019.
  5. It helps 900,000 people harmed by the war in Ukraine since June 2016, by forming a Technical Committee in Thaporizhia and a Technical Secretariat based in Kiev.
  6. Helps people displaced by floods in Iran since April 2019.
  7. Global Humanitarian Action Plan (July 2020), through which, the Dicastery manages meetings with representatives of Chile and Peru, stipulating diocesan and sectoral priorities in matters of Food Safety, Hygiene Promotion and recovery of productive systems to help family members of migrants, displaced people and vulnerable families.

In addition to the above, Pope Francis in the Encyclical Laudato Si (Vatican, 2015), alluding to Saint Francis of Assisi, which means “Praised be you, my Lord”, refers to the care of our common home, the Planet Earth, where every human being shares existence.

In this regard, he adds “Nothing in this world is indifferent to us” (Vatican, 2015) and that is why the urgent challenge of protecting this house, the planet, must be underlined, which joins the concern of uniting the entire human family in search of a sustainable and integral development. In this way, we think of a way to build a better future, also thinking about the “suffering of the excluded and especially the deterioration of the quality of human life and social degradation that has led to social exclusion, inequity, social fragmentation. , loss of identity ”(Vatican, 2015).

For his part, Pope Francis in the recent Encyclical Tutti Fratelli (Vatican, 2020b), reminds us that “parts of humanity seem sacrificial”, be it the “unborn” or the “elderly”, to which we can add, those who do not belong anywhere because they have been forced to emigrate.

This reaffirms that “human rights are not universal enough” (Vatican, 2020b) and states that “the loneliness, fears and insecurity of so many people who feel abandoned by the system, create a fertile ground for the mafias. Because they affirm themselves by presenting themselves as “protectors” of the forgotten, often through various aid, while pursuing their criminal interests. There is a typically mafia pedagogy that, with a false community mystique, creates bonds of dependency and subordination from which it is very difficult to break free”. This helps to strengthen the arguments previously made by López Marroquín (2019).

Therefore, it is argued that there is no “human dignity on the borders”, it can be read in the Fratelli Tutti (Vatican, 2020b): “Many escape from war, from persecution, from natural catastrophes. Others, rightly, “seek opportunities for themselves and their families. They dream of a better future and want to create the conditions for it to come true. “

Migration is a determining element of the future of the world, many human beings fall prey to “Unscrupulous traffickers, often linked to the drug and arms cartels, exploit the situation of weakness of immigrants, who throughout their journey too often they experience violence, human trafficking, psychological and physical abuse, and unspeakable suffering” (Vatican, 2020b).

To this situation described above, it is added that “Those who emigrate” have to separate themselves from their own context of origin and often experience cultural and religious uprooting. The fracture also concerns the communities of origin, which lose the most vigorous and entrepreneurial elements, and families, particularly when one or both parents emigrate, leaving the children in the country of origin” (Vatican, 2020b).

Therefore, it agrees with the basic principle of the right not to emigrate, that is, to have the conditions to remain in one’s own land, where each state and government is responsible for creating conditions to achieve well-being and a dignified life, without having to indirectly force human beings to undergo these vicissitudes where their lives are in danger.

In Fratelli Tutti it is added “to top it off in some countries of arrival, migratory phenomena arouse alarm and fear, often promoted and exploited for political purposes. Thus, a xenophobic mentality is spread, of people closed and withdrawn on themselves”. In other words, “migrants are not considered worthy enough to participate in social life like anyone else, and it is forgotten that they have the same intrinsic dignity of any person” (Vatican, 2020b).


Due to the above, the problem of migrants, such as internally displaced persons or refugees, constitutes a global problem that is difficult to solve.

Various international organizations such as the United Nations, UNHCR, the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, among others, have intervened on the issue, however, the quantitative figures of migratory movements reveal a pressing situation of different population groups, mainly caused by wars, famine and persecution generated by the same man and by other international organizations that have allowed the actions of various countries in well-targeted foreign territories.

In other words, part of the organizations participating in the causes identified for these migratory movements are those that respond and try to apply some type of mechanism and solution to the situation derived from these population movements, that is, they consist of a kind of cause-solution. They have generated their own national policies, they have acted as accomplices, co-authors and causes of poverty, anguish, loneliness, poverty and despair of people fleeing their countries of origin.

Whatever form it may be, migrant-displaced or refugee, it is a person who is in search of an answer, but they fall into new, different and perhaps worse situations of insecurity. Be it Asia, the United States, Mexico, El Salvador, Colombia, Honduras, the Middle East and Africa, there are countries that repel population and others that receive. This situation understood in terms of the Peripheries of Existence, that is, relegated to the distribution of social, economic, labor and existence opportunities in general, hopefully and perhaps, with divine design, receive some occasional distribution that can solve the situation of hardship of many migrants. The loss of absolute consciousness of many desperate Africans who have lost their lives aboard inflatable boats in a suicidal task adds to abandonment, poverty, and disease.

As mentioned, various international organizations have focused on human movements from the International Organization for Migration (IOM); Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR); IOM Global Center for Migration Data Analysis; Norwegian Refugee Council, Internal Displacement Monitoring Center; Global Data Portal on Migration (IOM); many have performed an extremely important task in qualifying how to quantify and study displaced population groups.

The UN speech (2016) “leave no one behind”, is installed as a curtain to effectively always leave behind: migration policy is part of an unfinished and unfinished task and difficult to manage; the number of migrants increasing from 258 million (2017) to 272 million (2019) is the clearest example of this reality and this because previous statistics are not taken.

It does not reach South-South cooperation, nor North-South because the countries that make up that same division are part of the organizations that in theory must respond to the complex situation that the migrant lives, but they are also directly and indirectly responsible for the causes original and structural aspects of migratory movements: persecution, violence, wars, famine, among others.

The physiognomy of this complex situation is also accompanied by controversial political speeches, because many political parties defend positions against migratory movements since they are singled out for alleged criminal and / or terrorist positions, since it is true that, using poor sectors and excluded, groups with other intentions that respond and seek the attack on the countries of Europe also filter across borders.

Therefore, the doubt, the general fear in the presence of the migrant complicates the integral social and humanitarian inclusion that becomes difficult to apply; tolerance and harmonious coexistence in theoretical terms lead to an inconclusive praxis; some human groups are accused out of fear or simply because they belong to a certain country.

Many actions are taking place every day. The creation of care centers for migrants, the visit to refugee centers, the promotion of mental health, the creation and support of soup kitchens, assistance to asylum seekers, spiritual accompaniment, assistance to migrants who may not be able to express themselves or do not know the language, containment of pregnant mothers or with young children, the collection of clothes, food, money or diapers, among many others.

Understanding the reasons that motivate millions of people around the world to flee their homes requires a deep analysis that challenges us all as active members of our global society. For this, it is necessary to get out of the cold numbers and understand that each number is a person with a story, with joys and sufferings, with hopes, with dreams and with an irrevocable will to live. Making their existence visible and getting involved is a way of collaborating to change this reality that is far from being a matter of States or governments.

We are living in difficult times for the fulfillment of the widely desired utopia of peace.

The 20th century was declared by many intellectuals and connoisseurs of conflicts as the “Century of Murderous Ideas”. It was hoped that the 21st century, at the inauguration of the New Millennium, would open a certain path for Peace and provide an answer to those who wondered – like sociologist Alain Touraine – if “we can live together” or to those like John Paul II who cried out with “No” decided against the war from Assisi.

But none of this was true. Popular wisdom says well that “he who sows winds reaps storms” and it is in this reality that we live in a permanent tension between the longed-for peace and the evidence of the bloody confrontations that we recognize today and of which many – including the Pope Francis – have dubbed as the entry into the “Third World War”.

It must be remembered that the modalities of war have been transforming and that today they are presented as episodes with often misleading faces of either political or religious or economic and cultural motivations or the conjunction of all of them in such a way that analyzes They are largely contradictory on many points, complementary on others, and most of the time confusing in the conclusions that the policies to be taken should guide.

Whatever the causes and modalities, the responsibilities and consequences of wars, it is clear that the “human cost”, or as some prefer to call it the “collateral effects” occur in human lives, in physical and psychological ailments or in social situations that they generate destitution, exclusion or open the way to the new exodus of migrations that mark the nomadism of people who, having nothing to lose, “hope against hope”.

Undoubtedly, it is spoken in contradictory but generally accepted terms of “humanization of war” to refer to a series of regulations regarding measures to be taken to protect “survivors” not only in their lives but also in their dignity. like human beings.

Theoretically, there have been enormous developments and codes, courts and procedures are needed that speak of the intellectual capacity of those who have subjected reality to analysis and perceive the “developments of reason” to reduce the violation of the rights of individuals who, due to circumstances of the conflict are left defenseless. But it is well known that between theory and practice the distance can be enormous even more when the “supposed or real mechanisms or control instances” are not given real access to the review and evaluation of specific circumstances, either for reasons of national security, either due to the political necessity of a conjunctural order to preserve or not lose an already created positive image.

Here the deficiencies of everything legislated are noted, but it must be said that it is not on this isolated issue that the distance between what is thought and what is done is recognizable.



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